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SPARQL 1.1 Query: Results

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http://statistics.gov.scot/id/statistical-geography/S02000023 http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type geosparql: Geometry
http://statistics.gov.scot/id/statistical-geography/S02000023 geosparql: asWKT POLYGON ((-2.126859382281969 57.158032104906965, -2.125872157952005 57.154538711269005, -2.126996964463531 57.15477113656137, -2.126413035335309 57.153190717918115, -2.12519052660809 57.15338059099334, -2.124378119682228 57.152644785680195, -2.121701155724934 57.15285402607754, -2.121356700809409 57.15366283473139, -2.119769583267669 57.1535655515402, -2.119122776732251 57.15289244472062, -2.117608175649869 57.149597106123416, -2.119314705364511 57.14983693606405, -2.119558207090662 57.14953237726347, -2.120345410267052 57.15156598703008, -2.122901128507443 57.15085863380864, -2.122370332275827 57.149654697811016, -2.123459168771613 57.14887655781638, -2.126461824721412 57.148124252076805, -2.125976697322438 57.146408979298755, -2.128468460843913 57.14535543252736, -2.129597550524931 57.14688138603929, -2.130472755961001 57.14669183202417, -2.131054099073163 57.147517665392336, -2.143398516452225 57.1460552752577, -2.143636400447679 57.146571311731186, -2.141941478991976 57.146589524862804, -2.142444142431877 57.148376576044896, -2.147698293244444 57.14802913947142, -2.148054647099442 57.15035532321765, -2.149195637509617 57.15049769770404, -2.149649111813735 57.15228477775176, -2.148195115138515 57.152412269394716, -2.148728614924889 57.15355247527399, -2.147125572289482 57.15362622786918, -2.147391684145571 57.15403913537079, -2.145341959350385 57.1540145875893, -2.142172650407432 57.15503955438285, -2.143068154462445 57.15589007729288, -2.140228154615484 57.156733286128755, -2.133883628764304 57.157620561782785, -2.131352359433183 57.15704832965937, -2.128575562780942 57.157150022306446, -2.127785038189886 57.158004212178874, -2.126859382281969 57.158032104906965))
SPARQL API: The Basics

The most flexible way to access the data is by using SPARQL, a query language, analagous to SQL for relational databases, for retrieving and manipulating data from graph databases like ours. We support SPARQL 1.1 query syntax. Many online tutorials are available.

To submit a SPARQL query from your code, you issue an HTTP GET or POST to our endpoint:http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql, with the query itself as a url-encoded parameter called query.

For example, to run the following simple SPARQL query and get the results as JSON:

SELECT * WHERE {?s ?p ?o} LIMIT 10

Option 1: POST (recommended)

Issue a POST to the endpoint, with the query in the body, and an Accept header of sparql-results+json:

POST http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql HTTP/1.1
Host: statistics.gov.scot
Accept: application/sparql-results+json
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

query=SELECT+%2A+WHERE+%7B%3Fs+%3Fp+%3Fo%7D+LIMIT+10

Option 2: GET

Issue a GET to the following URL (note the .json extension - see the formats section for more detail on this):

GET http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql.json?query=SELECT+%2A+WHERE+%7B%3Fs+%3Fp+%3Fo%7D+LIMIT+10

Scroll down to the end of this page for examples of both of these methods in a few different languages.

Results formats

As with other aspects of our API, to get the data in different formats, you can use either (a) a format extension or (b) an HTTP Accept header. Available result formats depend on the type of SPARQL query. There are four main forms:

SELECT queries return tabular results, and the formats available reflect this:

Format Extensions Accept Headers
XML .xml application/xml,
application/sparql-results+xml
JSON .json application/json,
application/sparql-results+json
Text .txt, .text text/plain
CSV .csv text/csv

CONSTRUCT and DESCRIBE queries return graph data, so the results are available in the same formats as our resource APIs:

Format Extensions Accept Headers
RDF/XML .rdf application/rdf+xml
N-triples .nt, .txt, .text application/n-triples,
text/plain
Turtle .ttl text/turtle
JSON-LD .json application/ld+json,
application/json

ASK queries return a boolean result:

Format Extensions Accept Headers
XML .xml application/xml,
application/sparql-results+xml
JSON .json application/json,
application/sparql-results+json
Text .txt, .text text/plain
Results pagination

We accept page and per_page parameters for paginating the results of SELECT queries (we automatically modify your query to apply LIMIT and OFFSET clauses). For other query types (i.e. DESCRIBE, CONSTRUCT, ASK), pagination like this doesn’t make so much sense, so these parameters are ignored.

For requests made through the website (i.e. HTML format), the page size is defaulted to 20. For requests to our sparql endpoint for data formats (i.e. non-HTML), there will be no defaults for these parameters (i.e. results are unlimited. For performance reasons we generally advise LIMITing your query if possible).

Parameter Substitution

You can parameterise your SPARQL by including %{tokens} in your queries, and providing values for the tokens in the request parameters.

Note that the following tokens are reserved and cannot be used as parameters for substitution:

  • controller
  • action
  • page
  • per_page
  • id
  • commit
  • utf8
  • query
Cross Origin Resource Sharing

Our servers are configured to allow access from all domains. This means that if you’re writing JavaScript to request data from our server in to a web page hosted on another domain, your browser should check this header and allow it.

If you need to support very old browsers, you can additionally pass a callback parameter and the results will be wrapped in that function. For example:

http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql.json?callback=myCallbackFunction&query=SELECT+%2A+WHERE+%7B%3Fs+%3Fp+%3Fo%7D+LIMIT+10

This help topic on the jQuery website has more details.

Examples

Using cURL

Here’s a couple of examples running a query using the widely available cURL command line program.

Request the results as XML, using a POST:

curl -X POST -H "Accept: application/sparql-results+xml" -d "query=SELECT%20*%20WHERE%20%7B%3Fs%20%3Fp%20%3Fo%7D%20LIMIT%2010" http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql

Request the results as JSON, using a GET:

curl -X GET -H "Accept: application/sparql-results+json" http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql?query=SELECT%20*%20WHERE%20%7B%3Fs%20%3Fp%20%3Fo%7D%20LIMIT%2010

Using JavaScript

This example HTML page uses jQuery to issue a POST to our SPARQL endpoint, requesting the results as JSON.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
	<script src='http://code.jquery.com/jquery-1.9.1.min.js'></script>
</head>
<body>
<script type='text/javascript'>

	var query = 'SELECT * WHERE {?s ?p ?o} LIMIT 10';
	var url = 'http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql.json';
	$.ajax({
		method: 'POST',
		dataType: 'json',
		url: url,
		data: {query: query},
		success: function(data) {
			alert('success: ' + data.results.bindings.length + ' results');
			console.log(data);
		}
	});
</script>
</body>
</html>