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SPARQL 1.1 Query: Results

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http://statistics.gov.scot/id/statistical-geography/S01004312 http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type geosparql: Geometry
http://statistics.gov.scot/id/statistical-geography/S01004312 geosparql: asWKT POLYGON ((-3.613561003812613 57.66410782186083, -3.613670705836501 57.66355841017088, -3.616285413723042 57.66242001759957, -3.616156258933927 57.6613854642098, -3.614624290173202 57.66119033732487, -3.611848335850682 57.662256739949406, -3.611038183748689 57.66176419368382, -3.612328255433522 57.66119666693636, -3.611603783937973 57.66079978925616, -3.608153675139043 57.660107035209236, -3.608085135745713 57.659694652575254, -3.607590917571601 57.65988959597309, -3.603443596236625 57.657067435675, -3.602160115092149 57.657227442670674, -3.601676840085583 57.65691014822285, -3.601839919986787 57.65467494883576, -3.601469351496711 57.654494755072086, -3.600088212210607 57.6557336354025, -3.597909767619024 57.654542025964645, -3.596905634446002 57.65463059033634, -3.595749914750158 57.65285253957162, -3.595009246907161 57.653344461367574, -3.593363040570485 57.65262840507627, -3.593920269227414 57.65245886816671, -3.59339431427446 57.65177111767038, -3.594625196531751 57.65089928056625, -3.597423925303379 57.6512861949294, -3.599034679626973 57.650951403694506, -3.600864827832009 57.651413372036444, -3.605755246891566 57.65514252571461, -3.606667287164218 57.65530163463878, -3.606030701391385 57.6556870397484, -3.611305987197613 57.65862052313793, -3.612690754707524 57.659231738293926, -3.613166591652357 57.65900107394688, -3.612778500920497 57.65932045731426, -3.613411873115882 57.659617827891104, -3.61393597011091 57.659341626906006, -3.613449763051352 57.6597161653724, -3.621047803514711 57.66283520871768, -3.623049381848949 57.662611895067876, -3.623943814824192 57.66162117920713, -3.625048006208272 57.6619483814892, -3.624654591288641 57.66289673525427, -3.622750413650822 57.66342427410678, -3.613561003812613 57.66410782186083))
SPARQL API: The Basics

The most flexible way to access the data is by using SPARQL, a query language, analagous to SQL for relational databases, for retrieving and manipulating data from graph databases like ours. We support SPARQL 1.1 query syntax. Many online tutorials are available.

To submit a SPARQL query from your code, you issue an HTTP GET or POST to our endpoint:http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql, with the query itself as a url-encoded parameter called query.

For example, to run the following simple SPARQL query and get the results as JSON:

SELECT * WHERE {?s ?p ?o} LIMIT 10

Option 1: POST (recommended)

Issue a POST to the endpoint, with the query in the body, and an Accept header of sparql-results+json:

POST http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql HTTP/1.1
Host: statistics.gov.scot
Accept: application/sparql-results+json
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

query=SELECT+%2A+WHERE+%7B%3Fs+%3Fp+%3Fo%7D+LIMIT+10

Option 2: GET

Issue a GET to the following URL (note the .json extension - see the formats section for more detail on this):

GET http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql.json?query=SELECT+%2A+WHERE+%7B%3Fs+%3Fp+%3Fo%7D+LIMIT+10

Scroll down to the end of this page for examples of both of these methods in a few different languages.

Results formats

As with other aspects of our API, to get the data in different formats, you can use either (a) a format extension or (b) an HTTP Accept header. Available result formats depend on the type of SPARQL query. There are four main forms:

SELECT queries return tabular results, and the formats available reflect this:

Format Extensions Accept Headers
XML .xml application/xml,
application/sparql-results+xml
JSON .json application/json,
application/sparql-results+json
Text .txt, .text text/plain
CSV .csv text/csv

CONSTRUCT and DESCRIBE queries return graph data, so the results are available in the same formats as our resource APIs:

Format Extensions Accept Headers
RDF/XML .rdf application/rdf+xml
N-triples .nt, .txt, .text application/n-triples,
text/plain
Turtle .ttl text/turtle
JSON-LD .json application/ld+json,
application/json

ASK queries return a boolean result:

Format Extensions Accept Headers
XML .xml application/xml,
application/sparql-results+xml
JSON .json application/json,
application/sparql-results+json
Text .txt, .text text/plain
Results pagination

We accept page and per_page parameters for paginating the results of SELECT queries (we automatically modify your query to apply LIMIT and OFFSET clauses). For other query types (i.e. DESCRIBE, CONSTRUCT, ASK), pagination like this doesn’t make so much sense, so these parameters are ignored.

For requests made through the website (i.e. HTML format), the page size is defaulted to 20. For requests to our sparql endpoint for data formats (i.e. non-HTML), there will be no defaults for these parameters (i.e. results are unlimited. For performance reasons we generally advise LIMITing your query if possible).

Parameter Substitution

You can parameterise your SPARQL by including %{tokens} in your queries, and providing values for the tokens in the request parameters.

Note that the following tokens are reserved and cannot be used as parameters for substitution:

  • controller
  • action
  • page
  • per_page
  • id
  • commit
  • utf8
  • query
Cross Origin Resource Sharing

Our servers are configured to allow access from all domains. This means that if you’re writing JavaScript to request data from our server in to a web page hosted on another domain, your browser should check this header and allow it.

If you need to support very old browsers, you can additionally pass a callback parameter and the results will be wrapped in that function. For example:

http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql.json?callback=myCallbackFunction&query=SELECT+%2A+WHERE+%7B%3Fs+%3Fp+%3Fo%7D+LIMIT+10

This help topic on the jQuery website has more details.

Examples

Using cURL

Here’s a couple of examples running a query using the widely available cURL command line program.

Request the results as XML, using a POST:

curl -X POST -H "Accept: application/sparql-results+xml" -d "query=SELECT%20*%20WHERE%20%7B%3Fs%20%3Fp%20%3Fo%7D%20LIMIT%2010" http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql

Request the results as JSON, using a GET:

curl -X GET -H "Accept: application/sparql-results+json" http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql?query=SELECT%20*%20WHERE%20%7B%3Fs%20%3Fp%20%3Fo%7D%20LIMIT%2010

Using JavaScript

This example HTML page uses jQuery to issue a POST to our SPARQL endpoint, requesting the results as JSON.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
	<script src='http://code.jquery.com/jquery-1.9.1.min.js'></script>
</head>
<body>
<script type='text/javascript'>

	var query = 'SELECT * WHERE {?s ?p ?o} LIMIT 10';
	var url = 'http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql.json';
	$.ajax({
		method: 'POST',
		dataType: 'json',
		url: url,
		data: {query: query},
		success: function(data) {
			alert('success: ' + data.results.bindings.length + ' results');
			console.log(data);
		}
	});
</script>
</body>
</html>