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SPARQL 1.1 Query: Results

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Query results
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http://statistics.gov.scot/id/statistical-geography/S01004239 http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type geosparql: Geometry
http://statistics.gov.scot/id/statistical-geography/S01004239 geosparql: asWKT POLYGON ((-3.229124332086878 57.46830712192866, -3.227758318580647 57.47005694258986, -3.230448734821826 57.47042960367339, -3.225658873101477 57.47195912076372, -3.209299101823888 57.47885667377296, -3.211978580259415 57.47717800757464, -3.211004568467061 57.47596562548518, -3.21156988601903 57.47591527811647, -3.21002523543671 57.47509465560462, -3.215740111143924 57.472092827215185, -3.216134900767243 57.471368171765896, -3.220413295659965 57.46956856834508, -3.219466591767316 57.46894910211297, -3.218416056990279 57.46973259194514, -3.216931520630779 57.4693586755574, -3.216141655941131 57.47016035093817, -3.215459925085943 57.469670374622694, -3.218263404091573 57.468964762661685, -3.218940753416249 57.46820100221414, -3.219439716523538 57.46878073996632, -3.222400724507005 57.467683481402176, -3.222787178251969 57.46555998122589, -3.221564807466558 57.46562945232148, -3.221794368277997 57.46498627758864, -3.219931689595458 57.46462337192445, -3.221256429340327 57.46385593962181, -3.223434423776552 57.465676422626764, -3.224679546671492 57.46452343994349, -3.225678343691129 57.46470748618655, -3.225783966581135 57.465497560615184, -3.226562815059649 57.465778119883616, -3.226321326984854 57.46652732249254, -3.225495983194976 57.46646362052905, -3.223160596885428 57.468239505458605, -3.224101666407392 57.46867938916378, -3.225708599183652 57.46787323713494, -3.227823770338448 57.46814425626704, -3.228558342033095 57.46783651719505, -3.229124332086878 57.46830712192866))
SPARQL API: The Basics

The most flexible way to access the data is by using SPARQL, a query language, analagous to SQL for relational databases, for retrieving and manipulating data from graph databases like ours. We support SPARQL 1.1 query syntax. Many online tutorials are available.

To submit a SPARQL query from your code, you issue an HTTP GET or POST to our endpoint:http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql, with the query itself as a url-encoded parameter called query.

For example, to run the following simple SPARQL query and get the results as JSON:

SELECT * WHERE {?s ?p ?o} LIMIT 10

Option 1: POST (recommended)

Issue a POST to the endpoint, with the query in the body, and an Accept header of sparql-results+json:

POST http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql HTTP/1.1
Host: statistics.gov.scot
Accept: application/sparql-results+json
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

query=SELECT+%2A+WHERE+%7B%3Fs+%3Fp+%3Fo%7D+LIMIT+10

Option 2: GET

Issue a GET to the following URL (note the .json extension - see the formats section for more detail on this):

GET http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql.json?query=SELECT+%2A+WHERE+%7B%3Fs+%3Fp+%3Fo%7D+LIMIT+10

Scroll down to the end of this page for examples of both of these methods in a few different languages.

Results formats

As with other aspects of our API, to get the data in different formats, you can use either (a) a format extension or (b) an HTTP Accept header. Available result formats depend on the type of SPARQL query. There are four main forms:

SELECT queries return tabular results, and the formats available reflect this:

Format Extensions Accept Headers
XML .xml application/xml,
application/sparql-results+xml
JSON .json application/json,
application/sparql-results+json
Text .txt, .text text/plain
CSV .csv text/csv

CONSTRUCT and DESCRIBE queries return graph data, so the results are available in the same formats as our resource APIs:

Format Extensions Accept Headers
RDF/XML .rdf application/rdf+xml
N-triples .nt, .txt, .text application/n-triples,
text/plain
Turtle .ttl text/turtle
JSON-LD .json application/ld+json,
application/json

ASK queries return a boolean result:

Format Extensions Accept Headers
XML .xml application/xml,
application/sparql-results+xml
JSON .json application/json,
application/sparql-results+json
Text .txt, .text text/plain
Results pagination

We accept page and per_page parameters for paginating the results of SELECT queries (we automatically modify your query to apply LIMIT and OFFSET clauses). For other query types (i.e. DESCRIBE, CONSTRUCT, ASK), pagination like this doesn’t make so much sense, so these parameters are ignored.

For requests made through the website (i.e. HTML format), the page size is defaulted to 20. For requests to our sparql endpoint for data formats (i.e. non-HTML), there will be no defaults for these parameters (i.e. results are unlimited. For performance reasons we generally advise LIMITing your query if possible).

Parameter Substitution

You can parameterise your SPARQL by including %{tokens} in your queries, and providing values for the tokens in the request parameters.

Note that the following tokens are reserved and cannot be used as parameters for substitution:

  • controller
  • action
  • page
  • per_page
  • id
  • commit
  • utf8
  • query
Cross Origin Resource Sharing

Our servers are configured to allow access from all domains. This means that if you’re writing JavaScript to request data from our server in to a web page hosted on another domain, your browser should check this header and allow it.

If you need to support very old browsers, you can additionally pass a callback parameter and the results will be wrapped in that function. For example:

http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql.json?callback=myCallbackFunction&query=SELECT+%2A+WHERE+%7B%3Fs+%3Fp+%3Fo%7D+LIMIT+10

This help topic on the jQuery website has more details.

Examples

Using cURL

Here’s a couple of examples running a query using the widely available cURL command line program.

Request the results as XML, using a POST:

curl -X POST -H "Accept: application/sparql-results+xml" -d "query=SELECT%20*%20WHERE%20%7B%3Fs%20%3Fp%20%3Fo%7D%20LIMIT%2010" http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql

Request the results as JSON, using a GET:

curl -X GET -H "Accept: application/sparql-results+json" http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql?query=SELECT%20*%20WHERE%20%7B%3Fs%20%3Fp%20%3Fo%7D%20LIMIT%2010

Using JavaScript

This example HTML page uses jQuery to issue a POST to our SPARQL endpoint, requesting the results as JSON.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
	<script src='http://code.jquery.com/jquery-1.9.1.min.js'></script>
</head>
<body>
<script type='text/javascript'>

	var query = 'SELECT * WHERE {?s ?p ?o} LIMIT 10';
	var url = 'http://statistics.gov.scot/sparql.json';
	$.ajax({
		method: 'POST',
		dataType: 'json',
		url: url,
		data: {query: query},
		success: function(data) {
			alert('success: ' + data.results.bindings.length + ' results');
			console.log(data);
		}
	});
</script>
</body>
</html>