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Underemployment: a data cube spreadsheet

People who are in work but who would prefer to work more hours for the same rate of pay

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About the Dataset
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In dataset
Next update due
November 2020

Underemployment refers to those who are in work but who would prefer to work more hours for the same rate of pay and provides a measure of underutilization of labour. The APS only gathers information on hours based underemployment. Specifically, underemployment covers those looking for: - Additional hours in their existing role (at the same rate of pay) - An additional job (to supplement their existing job) - a different job with more hours

The data used for this indicator is taken from the Annual Population Survey (APS). The APS was introduced in January 2004 and it has replaced the Annual Local Area Labour Force Survey. The APS combines results from the Labour Force Survey ( LFS) and the English, Welsh and Scottish Labour Force Survey boosts. The boosts increase the sample size which means the APS can provide more robust labour market estimates for local areas compared to the main LFS. Thus the APS is the primary source for information on local labour markets providing headline estimates on employment, unemployment and economic activity. The APS is the largest annual household survey in Scotland and provides a wealth of information about individuals' personal circumstances and their work. The LFS surveys individuals living at private households in the UK and is designed to be representative of the national population. The Scottish Government funds the boost to the LFS sample in Scotland, taking the sample size from approximately 8,000 households for the each year to 23,000 households.

Confidentiality Policy

This dataset does not contain any sensitive or personal information.

Quality Management

Details on the methodology and quality assurance of Annual Population Survey data can be found on the ONS website

Accuracy and Reliability

Where the estimate is unreliable (i.e. the group sample size or estimate is small) or the group sample size is zero or disclosive (0-2), the data has been removed.

The 95% lower confidence limit and 95% upper confidence limit relating to the ratio, are also published providing a measure of precision.

Note that this data is not seasonally adjusted and comparisons should only be made with the same quarter across years.

Coherence and Comparability

The Scottish Government publishes reports which presents analysis on the labour market at Scotland and sub-Scotland levels.

Accessibility and Clarity

Statistics from the APS are presented in reports and spreadsheets available on the Scottish Goverment's website.


The Annual Population Survey (APS) combines results from the Labour Force Survey (LFS) and the English, Welsh and Scottish Labour Force Survey boosts increasing the sample size in Scotland, which means the APS can provide more robust labour market estimates compared to the main Labour Force Survey, for local areas and smaller groups of the population.

Timeliness and Punctuality

This dataset is updated quarterly.


In April 2019, APS data for Scotland was reweighted to 2016 population estimates. Consequently estimates for previous years (from 2012 through to 2018) may differ from previously released results.


This slice of multidimensional data is not a Linked Data resource in the database: it's a virtual resource (i.e. you can't query it by SPARQL). But does have a permanent unique URL which can be bookmarked.